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2 – TWO

The Dual Nature of Jesus Christ

The dual nature of Jesus Christ as both fully God and fully human is a fundamental doctrine of Christian theology. This profound mystery of the Incarnation is beautifully articulated in the Gospel of John: “And the Word became flesh and made his dwelling among us, and we saw his glory, the glory as of the Father’s only Son, full of grace and truth” (Jn 1:14). The union of divinity and humanity in Jesus is crucial for our salvation, as it allows Him to be the perfect mediator between God and humanity.

The Catholic Church asserts that Jesus possesses two distinct natures – divine and human – in one divine Person, a doctrine known as the hypostatic union, which was affirmed at the Council of Chalcedon in 451 AD. As the Catechism of the Catholic Church states: “The unique and altogether singular event of the Incarnation of the Son of God does not mean that Jesus Christ is part God and part man, nor does it imply that he is the result of a confused mixture of the divine and the human. He became truly man while remaining truly God” (CCC 464).

This dual nature of Christ is reflected in various aspects of Christian life and Scripture:

Jesus is God and Human

The Gospel of John states, “And the Word became flesh and made his dwelling among us, and we saw his glory, the glory as of the Father’s only Son, full of grace and truth” (Jn 1:14). Thomas acknowledges Jesus as God, saying, “My Lord and my God!” (Jn 20:28). Paul writes, “But emptied himself, taking the form of a slave, coming in human likeness; and found human in appearance” (Phil 2:7).

The Word of God as a Two-Edged Sword

“Indeed, the word of God is living and effective, sharper than any two-edged sword, penetrating even between soul and spirit, joints and marrow, and able to discern reflections and thoughts of the heart” (Heb 4:12).

Humans Have Body and Soul

Jesus teaches, “And do not be afraid of those who kill the body but cannot kill the soul; rather, be afraid of the one who can destroy both soul and body in Gehenna” (Mt 10:28). Ecclesiastes states, “And the dust returns to the earth as it once was, and the life breath returns to God who gave it” (Eccl 12:7). St. Paul writes, “I say, then: live by the Spirit and you will certainly not gratify the desire of the flesh. For the flesh has desires against the Spirit, and the Spirit against the flesh; these are opposed to each other, so that you may not do what you want” (Gal 5:16-17).

God Created Humans as Male and Female

“God created mankind in his image; in the image of God he created them; male and female he created them” (Gen 1:27).

There is Good and Evil

St. Paul advises, “Do not be conquered by evil but conquer evil with good” (Rom 12:21) and warns, “Whoever sows for the flesh will reap corruption from the flesh, but whoever sows for the spirit will reap eternal life from the spirit” (Gal 6:8). Jesus talks about the final judgment separating the righteous and the sinners (Mt 25:31-46).

Union with Christ and the Church

Jesus speaks of His union with the Father: “Do you not believe that I am in the Father and the Father is in me? The words that I speak to you I do not speak on my own. The Father who dwells in me is doing his works” (Jn 14:10-11).

St. Paul likens Jesus to a groom and the Church to His bride: “Christ loved the church and handed himself over for her to sanctify her, cleansing her by the bath of water with the word, that he might present to himself the church in splendor, without spot or wrinkle or any such thing, that she might be holy and without blemish” (Eph 5:25-27).

Unity of Husband and Wife

God united Adam and Eve as husband and wife: “A man leaves his father and mother and clings to his wife, and the two of them become one body” (Gen 2:24).

Teamwork of Two

“Two are better than one: They get a good wage for their toil. If the one falls, the other will help the fallen one. But woe to the solitary person! If that one should fall, there is no other to help” (Eccl 4:9-10). Moses and Aaron worked as a team for the liberation of Israel from Egypt.

Two Witnesses

A charge is valid only with the testimony of two or three witnesses: “A charge shall stand only on the testimony of two or three witnesses” (Deut 19:15). Jesus sent His disciples two by two to preach (Mk 6:7). Paul advised, “Do not accept an accusation against a presbyter unless it is supported by two or three witnesses” (1 Tim 5:19).


“God made the two great lights, the greater one to govern the day, and the lesser one to govern the night, and the stars” (Gen 1:16).

Abram and Lot separated to avoid quarrels among their shepherds (Gen 13:5-12). Rebekah’s twins were two nations in her womb (Gen 25:22-24). After Solomon’s death, Israel split into two kingdoms, Israel and Judah (1 Kgs 12:3-20). The Bible is divided into the Old and New Testaments: “So whoever is in Christ is a new creation: the old things have passed away; behold, new things have come” (2 Cor 5:17).


We have good and evil in conflict within us. Paul wrote: “For I do not do the good I want, but I do the evil I do not want. Now if I do what I do not want, it is no longer I who do it, but sin that dwells in me. So, then, I discover the principle that when I want to do right, evil is at hand. For I take delight in the law of God, in my inner self, but I see in my members another principle at war with the law of my mind, taking me captive to the law of sin that dwells in my members” (Rom 7:19-20). Jesus, who overcame temptation in the desert, will strengthen us if we remain united with Him. He said, “Remain in me, as I remain in you. Just as a branch cannot bear fruit on its own unless it remains on the vine, so neither can you unless you remain in me” (Jn 15:4).

As followers of Christ, we are called to embrace the fullness of our humanity while striving for union with God. Like Jesus, we must integrate the spiritual and material aspects of our lives, recognizing that we are created for both earthly and heavenly purposes.

The Catholic tradition offers rich resources for this integration, including the sacraments, which use physical elements to convey spiritual grace. Through baptism, we are united with Christ’s death and resurrection. In the Eucharist, we receive Christ’s body and blood under the appearances of bread and wine.

Let us strive to live out our faith in a way that honors both our earthly responsibilities and our heavenly calling. May we, like Christ, be bridges between the divine and the human, bringing God’s love and truth to a world in need of redemption. As we face the inevitable tensions and conflicts within ourselves and in the world around us, let us turn to Jesus, who perfectly reconciled divinity and humanity in His own person, as our model and source of strength.

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